The Most Important Japanese Lesson Yet!

5 Sep

Public transportation is big in Japan. You’ll probably need to catch a bus at some point. So, you will want to ask questions such as, “is this bus bound for Tokyo?” You’ll probably also need to tell people things such as, “I need to get off the train at Nagano station.” Phrases and questions like these are the key to getting around in Japan.

This Beginner Japanese article is here to help you! You will learn how to ask and answer questions about where you are trying to go. Ask Kono basu wa Tokyo-iki desu? (“Is this bus bound for Tokyo?”) and similar questions in Japanese. This Japanese article is the key to getting where you are headed!

Vocabulary: In this article, you’ll learn the following words and phrases:

waza waza – “taking so much trouble”

agaru – “to enter, to come up” (class 1 verb)

kaeru – “to go back” (class 1 verb)

yuuhan – “evening meal”

ekimae – “in front of the station”

umai – “delicious, tasty” (-i ending adjective)

uisukii – “whiskey”

koori – “ice”

hantai – “opposite”

kansha – “thanks, gratitude”

shoojiki – “honestly, honest”

betsu – “different, another”

Grammar: In this article, you’ll learn the following words and phrases:

Useful Vocabulary and Phrases

yuuhan “supper, evening meal”

There are several words meaning “supper” in Japanese:

yuu-gohan

ban-gohan

yuu-shoku

yuuhan

yumeshi (very informal and sounds masculine)

banmeshi (very informal and sounds masculine)

Please also review “breakfast” and “lunch:”

Breakfast:

asa-go-han

choo-shoku

asa-meshi (very informal and sounds masculine)

Lunch:

o-hiru-go-han

hiru-go-han

o-hiru

hiru

chuu-shoku

hiru-meshi (very informal and sounds masculine)

hantai “opposition”

When we add -suru or o suru , it becomes a verb meaning “to oppose.” The opposite word is sansei, which means “approval.” The particle ni follows the object one opposes or agrees with.

Example

Musume no kekkon ni hantai suru.

“I’m opposed to my daughter’s marriage.”

Today’s Target Phrase

Tokyo ni kaetta.

“She went back to Tokyo.

The verb conjugations that make the –ta form of a verb, or the plain past form of a verb, are today’s grammar point. The formation of the plain past form is quite simple: change the final sound of the –te form from –te to –ta.

-ta Form of Verbs

  1. Conjugate a verb to the –te form. SEE Beginner Series Season 4, Articles 19, 20, 21, and 22 for more details.
  2. Drop the -te and add –ta

“English” / Dictionary Form / Te Form / Ta Form

“to buy” / kau / katte / katta

“to write” / kaku / kaite / kaita

“to speak” / hanasu / hanashite / hanashita

“to wait” / matsu / matte / matta

“to die” / shinu / shinde / shinda

“to drink” / nomu / nonde / nonda

“to make” / tsukuru / tsukutte / tsukutta

“to swim” / oyogu / oyoide / oyoida

“to invite” / yobu / yonde / yonda

“to go” / iku / itte / itta

“to eat” / taberu / tabete / tabeta

“to return” / kaeru / kaette / kaetta

“to do” / suru / shite / shita

“to come” / kuru / kite / kita

Formal Speech and Informal Speech

Politeness Level / Formal Speech / Informal SpeechNon-Past Affirmative / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaerimasu. / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaeru.

Non-Past Negative / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaerimasen. / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaeranai.

Past Affirmative/ Miu wa Tokyo ni kaerimashita. / Miu wa Tokyo ni kaetta.

Past Negative / Miu wa Tokyo ni kaerimasen deshita. / Miu wa Tokyo ni kaeranakatta.

Notes:

*Non-past dictionary form of a verb: See Nihongo Doojoo, “Style You and Beyond, Articles 19, 20, 21, and 22,” for more details.

*Non-polite past form of a verb: See Beginner Season 4 Article 23 for more details.

*Please note thatthe non-past plain negative form of a verb conjugates as -i ending adjectives to get the past form. Change the final -i to katta.

For Example:

  1. kaeranai becomes keranakatta
  2. minai becomes minakatta

This grammar point hasn’t been explained in the Nihongo Doojoo series yet.

Practice 1:

Fill in the blanks to complete the chart.

Class 1 Verbs

“English” / Dictionary Form / Plain Negative Form / -Te Form / -Ta Form

“to listen” / kiku / kikanai / kiite / kiita

“to lend” / —- / kasanai / kashite / —-

“to wait” / matsu / —- / —- / —-

“to read” / —- / yomanai / —- / —-

“to understand” / —- / —- / wakatte / —-

“to go” / iku / —- / itte / —-

“to say” / iku / iwanai / itte / —-

“to meet” / au / —- / —- / —-

Class 2 Verbs

“English” / Dictionary Form / Plain Negative Form / -Te Form / -Ta Form

“to sleep” / neru / nenai / nete / —-

“to look” / miru / —- / —- / —-

Class 3 Verbs

“English” / Dictionary Form / Plain Negative Form / -Te Form / -Ta Form

“to do” / —- / —- / shite / —-

“to come” / kuru / —- / kite / —-

Practice 2:

Change the formal speech to casual speech.

  1. Terebi o mimashita.
  2. Yhan o tabemashita.
  3. Nihon-go o benky shimashita.
  4. Kin Nihon ni kimashita.
  5. Wakarimashita.
  6. Mizu o nomimashita.
  7. Takush de ikimashita.  



Source by Peter Galante

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